Waste management

Catalytic mineralisation

A new solution for disposing of municipal solid waste

 

ENCO spol s r.o. introduces an innovative and patented solution for ecological waste disposal. The CATALYTIC MINERALISATION technology we produce disposes of waste in a more environmentally sensitive manner.

ZERO EMISSIONS

Thanks to the low processing temperature, no harmful substances are emitted during processing, only CO2 and vapour.

NO LANDFILLS

The volume and weight of waste may be reduced by up to 99%. This eliminates the need of waste storage in landfills.

COST SAVINGS

Low operating and energy costs. The modular structure makes it possible to process most types of waste.

How it works

 

Die katalytische Mineralisierung ist eine Mineralisierung bei niedrigen Temperaturen und Vergasung mit der katalytischen Reinigung von Reaktionsgasen, wobei die Wärme- und elektrische Energie zurückgewinnen werden können. Da die Prozesse ohne Verbrennung und bei niedriger Temperatur bis zu 550° C laufen, werden keine schädlichen Abfallstoffe wie z. B. NO2, Dioxine, Furane, Methan, CO u. a. freigesetzt. Diese Technologie gehört laut der Richtlinie 96/61 EC unter Kategorie BAT (Best available technology).

 

Main advantages of the technology

 

• Low process temperature, no emissions of harmful substances.

• An 80 to 99% reduction in the volume and weight of waste, thanks to which the need for landfilling is completely eliminated or significantly reduced.

• No harmful emissions, only CO2 and water vapour are emitted.

• Low operating and energy costs.

• Modular structure for processing different kinds of wastes.

• Efficient heat and power generation during the process.

 

 

80% reduction in waste volumes0%

99% reduction in waste volumes0%

 

This technological process in cooperation with Infra Waste as the subcontractor for special components results in 80 to 99% waste volume reduction (depending on the composition of the waste), complete dewatering of wastes, complete elimination of any waste odours, and elimination of all viruses and bacteria.

Katalytická mineralizácia v Seredi
Catalytic mineralization scheme

Processed types of waste and output materials

The input material is mainly municipal waste of various types, while the connection of additional modules permits the processing of some types of hazardous, liquid and hospital waste.

The mineral powder does not contain any harmful substances and may be disposed of directly in a landfill or used as an admixture in concrete, foundation materials for roads, structures and similar.

 

The only other products of the process are water and CO2. Metal, glass and other non-degradable materials entering the process remain unchanged at the outlet and are subsequently separated for further recovery and recycling.

Comparison with available technologies

  PYROLYSIS PLASMA CATALYTIC MINERALISATION
Temperature 800 – 1200⁰ C 3000 – 10000⁰ C 450 – 550⁰ C
Input segregation of materials yes yes only partially
Disposal of hazardous wastes only after significant modifications only after significant modifications yes
Formation of dioxins yes yes (reverse synthesis) no
Energy demands high very high low
Operating costs high high low
Recovery of raw materials after difficult segregation after difficult segregation simple after the end of the process
Recovery of raw materials from process gases impossible impossible simple, depending on content of the element
Emission purity level only after the installation of additional equipment only after the installation of additional equipment very high, only CO2 and water vapour are emitted
Recovery of waste heat and power yes, after the installation of an additional unit and a generator yes, after the installation of an additional unit and a generator yes, generators are part of the equipment
Range of processing options for different types of wastes limited limited nearly unlimited
Construction complexity high very high low
Space requirements large given the need for storage and segregation large given the need for storage and segregation minimum of handling areas

Odpadové hospodárstvo, katalytická mineralizácia v Seredi

Brief description of the technology

After modification of the raw waste through separation and grinding to the required fraction of up to 50 mm, the waste is transported by conveyor to the mineralisation chamber hopper, from which the chamber bin is filled with help of gravity. After the moisture is evaporated and the waste is dried (200 °C), the mineralisation, gasification and utilisation process begins. Temperatures in the chamber fluctuate from 450 to 550 °C depending on the type of the processed waste.

 

Catalytic mineralisation is a process in which a mineral is formed from organic materials. The volume of the input waste is reduced 20- to 100-fold depending on its composition. The processed, utilised waste is collected on the bottom of the chamber in the collection container (bin) in the form of a fine mineral powder. From there, it is mechanically transferred to an external collection container.

 

The technical gas purification process begins after the completion of the mineralisation process. The reaction gas from the chamber passes through high temperature filters to remove mechanical impurities. The temperature in the pipe is then reduced to 400 °C and the gases enter the RCO reverse catalytic burner, where the process gas is purified by oxidation. The gas decomposes to form CO, CO2 and NOx nitrogen compounds. Subsequently, the gas flows through the heater to the internal burner, where it is purified at a temperature of 600 °C. H2O and CO2 are formed from CxHy and CO. The level of purity at this stage is 99%. From the internal burner, 5% of the gas is returned to the mineralisation chamber and the rest flows to the heat exchanger (air/water), where its temperature is reduced to 220 °C. As an alternative to the exchanger, we can use a turbine generator to generate electricity.  The gas is then passed through a DeNox filtration system with NOx reduction to NO2 through another heat exchanger into an absorber to remove odours. From there, it is routed to an exhaust stack and released into the atmosphere at a temperature of 35 °C and purity of 99.9% in the form of CO2 and H2O water vapour.

 

The technological line can be seen in a trial operation in Sereď, including with the participation of technologists.